Critical Sport Studies | Additional readings and resources

Students occasionally express interest in readings that expand upon the topics that we are covering here in this course.There are two ways in which you can explore additional books and articles.

1. Searchable database. First, I have made available online a search engine for my own research database. Of the 26,000 records, about 6,000 pertain to sports. You can access the portal to that database HERE. [Note: Many thanks to Ioannis Yessios, a talented programmer in the Academic Media & Technology Group, made it possible.]

2. Subject bibliography. As we go along I will provide you with bibliographic suggestions of some of the books and articles that I myself have found most useful.


Emergence of rugby and soccer in 19th-century England

Timothy J. L. Chandler (1996) "The Structuring of Manliness and the Development of Rugby Football at the Public Schools and Oxbridge, 1830-1880." In Making Men: Rugby and Masculine Identity, edited by John Nauright and Timothy J. L. Chandler. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, pages 13-31.  SML GV945.85/P75/M35X/1995

Adrian Harvey (1999) "Football's Missing Link: The Real Story of the Evolution of Modern Football." In Sport in Europe: Politics, Class, Gender, edited by J. A. Mangan. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, pages 92-116

John Lowerson "Manly Games" In Sport and the English middle classes, 1870-1914, edited by John Lowerson. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1993.  SML GV605/L63X/1993

Jennifer Macrory (1991) Running with the Ball: The Birth of Rugby Football. London: HarperColins Publishers.  (Written by the Archivist of Rugby School. Not in Yale libraries, but you may borrow my personal copy)

J. A. Mangan (1999) Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology. London: Frank Cass.  Bass GV346 M36

Wray Vamplew (1988) "Sport and Industrialization: An Economic Interpretation of the Changes in Popular Sport in Nineteenth-Century England." In Pleasure, Profit, Proselytism: British Culture and Sport at Home and Abroad, 1700-1914, edited by J. A. Mangan. London: Frank Cass, pages 7-20.  SML GV605 P58X 1988


The early history of football at Yale | Contemporary sources

Walter C. Camp (1886) "The Game and Laws of American Football." Outing, November. Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 68-76.

Walter C. Camp (1890) "Football: Detail of a Defensive Play." Outing, December. Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 209-211.

Walter C. Camp (1890) "The Two Problems with Amateur Athletics: The Spectator and the Professional." Outing, December. Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 197-200.

Walter C. Camp (1899) "Methods and Development in Tactics and Play." Outing,  Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 171-176

Walter C. Camp (1919) Athletes All. New York: Scribner's.

Owen Johnson (1997, original 1912) Stover at Yale. New Haven: The Yale Bookstore.  Bass PS3519/O37/S7/1997

Henry Beach Needham (1905) "The College Athlete: His Amateur Code: Its Evasion and Administration." McClure's Magazine, July. Volume 25, Issue 3, Page 260.

Henry Beach Needham (1905) "The College Athlete: How Commercialism Is Making Him a Professional." McClure's Magazine, June. Volume 25, Issue 2.

No byline (1892) "Yale Again Outplays Her Ancient Foe." New York Herald, November 20. Pages 15-16.

No byline (1893) "Yale Students Depressed: Blue in Heart as Well as in Color at New-Haven." New York Times, November 24. Page 3.

No byline (1894) "Yale Again Triumphant: Defeats Harvard in the Great Football Battle 12-4." New York Times, November 25. Pages 1, 2.

No byline (1923) "Pro Elevens Hurt Sport, Says Stagg." New York Times, November 2. Page 21.

Ralph D. Paine (1905) "Some Aspects of the Coming Football Season." Outing, September. Volume 46, Issue 6, Pages 761-763.

E. L. Richards (1885) "Physical Education and Athletic Sports at Yale." Outing, July. Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 451-454.

Henry Twombley (1940) Personal Reminiscences of a Yale Football Player of the Early ’Eighties. New Haven.  SML Yed5 F7 1


The early history of football at Yale | Secondary sources

Tim Cohane (1951) The Yale Football Story. New York: Putnam.  SML GV958/Y3/C64
Bernard M. Corbett and Paul Simpson (2004) The Only Game That Matters: The Harvard/Yale Rivalry. New York: Crown Publishers.  GV958.H3 C67X 2004
Gerald R. Gems (2000) For Pride, Profit, and Patriarchy: Football and the Incorporation of American Cultural Values. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.  SML GV950 G46X 2000

Robert J. Higgs (1987) "Yale and the Heroic Ideal: Gotterdammerung and Palingenesis, 1865-1914." In Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800-1940, edited by J. A. Mangan and James Walvin. New York: St. Martin's Press, pages 160-175.  SML HQ1090.7/G7/M36/1987B

Michael Oriard (1993) Reading Football: How the Popular Press Created an American Spectacle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  GV950/O75/1993

Roberta J. Park (1987) "Muscle, Mind, and Agon: Intercollegiate Debating and Athletics at Harvard and Yale, 1892-1909." Journal of Sport History 14(3): 263-285. 
Roberta J. Park (2001) ""Mended or Ended?": Football Injuries and the British and American Medical Press, 1870-1910." International Journal of the History of Sport 18(2): 110-133.  
David L. Westby and Allen Sack (1976) "The Commercialization and Functional Rationalization of College Football: Its Origins." Journal of Higher Education 47(6): 625-647

Jacob Leibenluft (2005) "100 Years of Modern Football." Yale Daily News, November 28. Pages 1, 4.
Courtney Pannell (2008) "The End of the Ironman Era." Yale Daily News, January 18. Pages 1, 4.
Michael Pomeranz (2007) "Alumni Long for Return of Aristophanes' Frogs." Yale Daily News, Ocotber 29. Page 8.
Adam Weber (2004) "Then and Now: Dusting Off 1914's Playbook." Yale Daily News, September 15. Pages 10, 19.


Some further works on the development of American football

James Sayle Watterson (2000) College Football: History, Spectacle, Controversy. Johns Hopkins University Press.  GV950 W28X 2000

Michael Oriard (1982) The End of Autumn: Reflections on My Life in Football. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company.  GV939/O74/A33/1982
Michael Oriard (1991) Sporting with the Gods: The Rhetoric of Play and Game in American Culture. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.  PS169/R53/O75/1991 (SML)
Michael Oriard (1993) Reading Football: How the Popular Press Created an American Spectacle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  GV950/O75/1993
Michael Oriard (2001) King Football: Sport & Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, the Weekly & Daily Press. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  SML GV950/O73/2001
Michael Oriard (2007) Brand NFL: Making and Selling America's Favorite Sport. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  SML GV954.3 .O75X 2007 (LC)

David Riesman and Reuel Denney (1951) "Football in America: A Study in Cultural Diffusion" American Quarterly 3(4): 309-325.  


Title IX and the growth of women's athletics

1. Books:

Eileen McDonagh and Laura Pappano (2007) Playing with the Boys: Why Separate Is Not Equal in Sports. New York: Oxford University Press.  SML
Selena Roberts (2005) A Necessary Spectacle: Billie Jean King, Bobby Riggs, and the Tennis Match That Leveled the Game. New York: Crown Publishers.  SML GV994.A1 R63X 2005
Welch Suggs (2005) A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press.  NIL GV709.18 U6 S86
Paula D. Welch (1999) Silver Era, Golden Moments: A Celebration of Ivy League Women's Athletics. Lanham, MD: Madison Books.  SML GV351.5/N67/W45/1999
Andrew S. Zimbalist (2006) The Bottom Line: Observations and Arguments on the Sports Business. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.  SML GV716/Z56/2006

2. Reports
Women's Sports Foundation (2007) "Who's Playing College Sports?" online here
R. Vivian Acosta and Linda Jean Carpenter (2008) "Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study, Thirty-One Year Update, 1977-2008." 40 pages.

3. Journal articles:
Jennifer Ring (2009) "America's Baseball Underground." Journal of Sport and Social Issues 33(4): 373-389. 
Betsey Stevenson (2007) "Title IX and the Evolution of High School Sports." Contemporary Economic Policy 25(4): 486-505. 
Theresa Walton and Michelle Helstein (2008) "Triumph of Backlash: Wrestling Community and the “Problem” of Title IX." Sociology of Sport Journal 25(3): 369-386.

4. Press articles:
Winnie Hu (2007) "Equal Cheers for Boys and Girls Draw Some Boos." New York Times, January 14. Section A, Pages 1, 35.
Robert Lipsyte (2000) "Five Years Later, a Female Kicker's Memorable Victory." New York Times, October 19. Section D, Page 7.
Jeré Longman (2008) "Elite Women Prove That a&M No Longer Stands for "All Male"." New York Times, March 30. Section A, Pages 1, 7.
David Owen (2006) "Title IX Babies: The Golf-Playing Lendl Girls Are Part of a Revolution in the Sport." New Yorker, May 15. Volume 82, Issue 13, Pages 44-49.
Bill Pennington (2002) "More Men's Teams Benched as Colleges Level the Field." New York Times, May 9. Section A, Pages 1, .
Bill Pennington (2004) "For These Men, Lots of Guts but Little Glory." New York Times, March 5. Section D, Pages 1, .
Bill Pennington (2006) "At James Madison, Title IX Is Satisfied, but the Students Are Not." New York Times, October 7. Section D, Pages 1, 7.
Katie Thomas (2009) "Bringing Girls into the Game." New York Times, June 15. Section D, Pages 1, 2.
Katie Thomas (2009) "A Team's Struggle Shows Disparity in Girls' Sports." New York Times, June 14. Section A, Pages 1,


A few references on issues of risk, pain, injury, and pressure in sports

Beck, Ulrich
1992 Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Newbury Park, CA and London: Sage.

Kotarba, Joseph A.
1983 Chronic Pain: Its Social Dimensions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Groves, David
1987 "Why Do Some Athletes Choose High-Risk Sports?," Physician and Sports Medicine 15(2):186-193.

Lyng, Stephen
1990 "Edgework: A Social Psychological Analysis of Voluntary Risk Taking," American Journal of Sociology 95(4):851-886.

Frey, James H.
1991 "Social Risk and the Meaning of Sport," Sociology of Sport Journal 8(2):136-145.

Curry, Timothy Jon
1993 "A Little Pain Never Hurt Anyone: Athletic Career Socialization and the Normalization of Sports Injury," Symbolic Interaction 16:273-290.

Curry, Timothy Jon and Strauss, R. H.
1994 "A Little Pain Never Hurt Anyone: A Photo-Essay on the Normalization of Sports Injury," Sociology of Sport Journal 11(2):195-208.

Young, Kevin
1993 "Violence, Risk, and Liability in Male Sports Culture," Sociology of Sport Journal 10(4):373-396.

Young, Kevin, White, Philip and McTeer, W.
1994 "Body Talk: Male Athletes Reflect on Sport, Injury and Pain," Sociology of Sport Journal 11(2):175-194.

Young, Kevin and White, Philip
1995 "Sport, Physical Danger, and Injury: The Experiences of Elite Women Athletes," Journal of Sport and Social Issues 19(1):45-61.

Waddington, Ivan
2000 "Sport and Health: A Sociological Perspective." In Jay Coakley and Eric Dunning, Handbook of Sports Studies. Pp. 408-421. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Gladwell, Malcolm
2000 "The Art of Failure: Why Some People Choke and Others Panic." New Yorker. August 21 & 28. Pp. 84-92.

Monaghan, Lee F
2001 Bodybuilding, Drugs and Risk. New York: Routledge.

Palmer, Catherine
2002 ""Shit Happens": The Selling of Risk in Extreme Sport," Australian Journal of Anthropology 13(3):323-336.

Bilger, Burkhard
2004 "Twin Peaks: Hermann Maier Came Back After a Near-Fatal Crash; Bode Miller Was Waiting." New Yorker. January 26. Pp. 62-73.

Howe, P. David
2004 Sport, Professionalism and Pain: Ethnographies of Injury and Risk. London and New York: Routledge.

Freeman, Mike
1998 "A Cycle of Violence, on the Field and Off." The New York Times. September 6.

Nack, William
2001 "The Wrecking Yard." Sports Illustrated. May 7. Pp. 60-75.

Child, Greg
2004 "Everest Lure Endures Despite Risk of Death." The New York Times. May 30.

Zinser, Lynn
2005 "Injury to U. S. Racer Puts Focus on Grit and Safety." The New York Times. December 28. Page 1

Pennington, Bill
2005 "Doctors See a Big Rise in Injuries As Young Athletes Train Nonstop." The New York Times. February 22. Page 1, D7

Howard, Jake
2005 "After Losing a Friend, Pipeline Surfers Tempt Fate With a Deadly Passion." The New York Times. December 18. Page 9

Of course many player memoirs, journalist accounts, and sports novels contain considerable detail on pain, risk, injury, and drugs. A few of the classics are:

Jenkins, Dan
1972 Semi-Tough. New York: Atheneum.

Gent, Peter
1973 North Dallas Forty. New York: William Morrow.

Green, Tim
1996 The Dark Side of the Game: My Life in the NFL. New York: Time Warner <Warner Books>.

Dent, Jim
1999 The Junction Boys: How Ten Days in Hell With Bear Bryant Forged a Championship Team. New York: St. Martin's Press.

A few references on cheating and ethics in sport

Boxill, Jan (ed.)
2003 Sports Ethics: An Anthology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Dorman, Larry
1996 "More Than a Drop of Integrity." The New York Times. March 20.

Farred, Grant
2003 ""Paki Cheats!" Postcolonial Tensions in England-Pakistan Cricket." In John Bale and Mike Cronin, Sport and postcolonialism. Pp. 91-145. Oxford and New York: Berg Press.

Fraleigh, Warren P.
2003 "Intentional Rules Violations: One More Time," Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 30(2):166-176.

Loland, Sigmund
2002 Fair Play in Sport: A Moral Norm System. London and New York: Routledge.

McNamee, M. J. and S. J. Parry (ed.)
1998 Ethics in Sports. London and New York: Routledge <imprint: E & FN Spon>.

Mewett, Peter G.
2002 "Discourses of Deception: Cheating in Professional Running," Australian Journal of Anthropology 13(3):292-308.

Morgan, William J. and Klaus V. Meier (ed.)
1995 Philosophic Inquiry in Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Morgan, William J., Klaus V. Meier and Angela Schneider (ed.)
2001 Ethics in Sports. Champaign, L: Human Kinetics.

Newman, Barry
2006 "Fake Mountain Air Gives Some Skiers Level Chance for Gold: "Alpine Cottage" Simulates High-Altitude Conditions But Italy Calls It Illegal." Wall Street Journal. January 28. Page 1, 10

Rae, Simon
2001 It's Not Cricket: A History of Skullduggery, Sharp Practice and Downright Cheating in the Noble Game. London: Faber & Faber.

Reddiford, Gordon
1998 "Cheating and Self-Deception in Sport." In M. J. McNamee and S. J. Parry, Ethics in sports. Pp. 225-239. London and New York: Routledge <imprint: E & FN Spon>.

Wardrop, Joan
2002 "Fixing a Match Or Two: Cricket, Public Confession and Moral Regeneration," Australian Journal of Anthropology 13(3):337-348.

Wertz, Spencer K.
1991 Talking a Good Game: Inquiries Into the Principles of Sport. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.